Will writers -
Reports on a review of will writing regulations coming from MoJ considerations on whether to introduce a licensing scheme.
Only 7 per cent of all wills are written by will writers. The vast majority are written by solicitors and a small minority by other providers – Page 40
There are four professional bodies with whom those writing wills may register: Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners, Institute of Professional Will writers (IPW), Law Society and Society of Will writers. Of these, only IPW is in the process of obtaining OFT Code approval. Solicitors, who are members of the Law Society, are already regulated and we assume that they would not have been directly affected by the proposals.
The IPW has approximately 250 full members accounting for about 50 per cent of all wills being written by will writers. The IPW applied for approval in August 2007 and successfully completed stage 1 of Consumer Codes
Approval Scheme in May 2008. This implies that the IPW has satisfied the OFT that its code of practice promotes consumer interests beyond the minimum requirements of consumer law. – Page 42
Voluntary and community sector organisations, not for profit organisations, third sector organisations and non-governmental organisations (page 1). Gives a more extensive definition of the justice sector on page 9 – 10. Workforce of this sector is estimated to be 0.5 million (page 13) – albeit because of inclusion of police force. More data on survey participants (page 14). More on frequency that volunteers help out within survey group (page 36).
Very wide definition of justice sector – including forensics (page 3). And again (page 15) – i.e. National Offender management service.
Use of International Dispute Resolution – page 7
US STUDY: in US, family courts were 75-80% self represented (page 366) – represented people normally get better results
Trends in entry into Barristers profession
Total numbers of QCs by gender Self Employed Bar 1986 to 2009
Total number of firms and offices
Solicitors status (partner, associates, etc)
Gender make up of solicitors
Type of employer
There is no universally accepted definition of generalist advice, though it usually refers to basic or initial, often one-off, advice, provided by advisors who do not specialise in a particular area of law. Generalist advice provided in CLACs includes the following: provision of information; filtering inappropriate queries; provision of options available to the client; identification of further action the client can take; provision of brief initial assistance (e.g. filling in forms, helping to draft letters, contacting third parties to seek information on the client’s behalf or supporting clients to reach early agreement on a dispute through negotiation); liaising with third parties to identify non-contentious ways of resolving the dispute. The CLAC generalist advice service is also required to establish legal aid eligibility when further (specialist) advice is needed and arrange referrals where the CLAC is unable to deliver the necessary advice. – Page 70
A key enabler for seamless advice journeys is a clear definition of roles and responsibilities among CLAC advisors. This includes defining boundaries between generalist and specialist advice, with specialists and generalists knowing what they do and do not cover in their respective advice sessions. It includes generalists telling clients exactly what they need to take to their specialist appointment, as specialists need to be confident that clients will arrive with all the necessary documentation. Division of tasks needs to be established, in terms of who makes appointments for clients, who confirms appointments and who does legal aid eligibility checks. Without the setting up of these enabling structures and processes, it is difficult to provide a seamless service to clients. – Page 82
There are 5,000 providers of legal aid.
There are 499 CitAs throughout the UK:
* 416 in England and Wales
* 58 (plus three probationary bureaux) in Scotland
* 22 in Northern Ireland
In addition to main bureau offices, advice is delivered in a multitude of settings including in local GP surgeries, community centres, libraries, magistrates courts and hospitals some – in total some 3,600 locations across England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The UK legal services market (including private practice firms, barristers, patent agents, and other legal professionals) experienced growth of just 2% in 2009, the lowest growth for many years.
There are over 10,000 law firms in England and Wales and 85% of these are small firms with 4 or less partners. Around 40% of all law firms are sole practitioners. Numerically, the sector may be dominated by small firms but, in revenue terms, power is heavily concentrated amongst the top players. The top 100 law firms claimed 74% of market revenues in 2009 while the top 10 firms generated 39% of all revenues.
Numbers of practising solicitors have been rising year-on-year for the last five years and the overwhelming majority of these are still in private practice. However, solicitor numbers are growing at the fastest rate outside private practice in corporate legal departments. Also increasing very rapidly is the number of paralegals employed in law firms.
The report review of the non-law firm legal advice service providers (page 2).
The legal profession in England and Wales is divided between solicitors and barristers. Solicitors may practice before lower courts, and higher courts if trained as a solicitor advocate, but their main (and traditionally only) work is outside the courts, in such areas as legal advice (which may be highly specialised), property conveyancing, wills and estates, preparing legal documents for business transactions and negotiating the legal terms of commercial contracts. Barristers act primarily as advocates with rights of audience in all courts within the jurisdiction. There are currently 116,110 solicitors in England and Wales and 10,240 self-employed barristers plus 2085 employed barristers. – Page 7
Looking at the number of cases of dishonest practices by solicitors and employees according to firm size:
For example, it has been shown in the UK that doctors who receive salaries (instead of fee for service) tend to send patients for more tests, choose more referrals and have a lower patient throughput than other doctors. Page 21
Survey report (implicitly) implies that customers visit a large range of suppliers (CAB, solicitors and other) to advice clients (page 8) http://www.law.cf.ac.uk/research/pubs/repository/1592.pdf Department for Constitutional Affairs 2006
Findings from the Legal Advice Sector Workforce Surveys Table shows breakdown of publically funded legal advice by type of service provider (pages 44 and 45). http://lsrc.org.uk/publications/workforce.pdf Legal Services Research Centre 2007
Unleashing Aspiration: The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions Takes an expansive definition of the number of people involved in law – 250,000 (page 15).
Survey of Public Access Barristers received 150 responses, 95 form chambers and 70 from individual practitioners. Areas of Public Access practice were very wide, covering Aviation and various types of Media Law. Most common, were Employment Law, as well as Landlord & Tenant, Contract, Personal Injury, Commercial/Chancery, Property and Intellectual Property – Page 1
The numbers of cases taken on varied greatly. From the responses received from chambers, the most common situation seemed to be for chambers where 1-4 members had taken on 1-4 cases, then around the 8-10 members, 8-10 cases mark. A small number of sole practitioners had also taken on Public Access work.
In the case of Public Access practitioners, the most common situation was for Public Access work to take up 5% or less of the total workload over the past year. This usually involved less than 10 cases over the year. The second largest group was the 5-10% group, where less than 10 cases were the norm. Only a few practitioners had taken on large numbers of cases. – Page 2
Survey of corporate counsel in England & Wales looking at numbers, types of organisation worked for, sectors, size of departments and roles.
Survey of 63 lawyers and 13 CEOs looking at in house (general) counsel found that:
General Counsel are employed to do a range of activities including – company secretarial work managing external counsel acting as a “cheap” alternative to external counsel drafting and negotiating commercial terms dealing with employment issues giving compliance advice and training identifying and avoiding risk structuring deals managing brands managing disputes mergers and disposals, or were involved in industry-specific activities, such as structuring investment products. – Page 6
Different levels of perception between lawyers and CEOs about how successful lawyers were at adding value. CEOs expect lawyers to add value whilst some lawyers see their role as merely providing legal advice – pages 6-7
Presents Value Pyramid showing 4 levels of work undertaken by general counsel – Level 1 involves tasks with the greatest strategic value to the business. The tasks in the bottom level (Level 4), while essential, are felt to be “bread and butter” work. Page 10
Examples of how lawyers create wealth for businesses – Pages 12 -13
Survey of 303 legal aid solicitors firms give an overview of legal aid firm sizes – including number of fee earners and cost per fee earner. – pages 34-36
Summary of the legal services market (page 4). Number of NFP (page 5). More stats (page 50).
Summary of number of legal aid contract holders and payments
Summary of number of legal aid contract holders and payments
Summary of many different advice centre providers
Summary of advice centre alliance membership – page 1 – various providers of legal advice. In total, 2000 organisations throughout the UK.
Summary data on size of solicitor and barristers’ professions (page 10 – 11), and also legal executives (page 11), licensed conveyancers (page 11-12), patent and trade mark attorneys (page 12) and other service providers (i.e. CAB) – page 12.
Summarising other research, briefing on legal services in the UK states that:
2001-2008 14% increase in number of people employed in legal services sector
20% of the workforce was self-employed, and the proportion of part time workers was similar (19%)
Majority of work force female (60%), and stongly london centred compared to other businesses (30% compared to 14%)
Average gross pay for lawyers, judges, and coroners was £55k, compared to legal secretaries £18k.
The pay difference between males and females solicitors, lawyers etc. among full-time employees only, females earned on average £53,059 and males £67,773.
Summarises various providers of non-legal aid services (page 3) – legal advice centres, legal expense insurance etc
Summarises the various professions – including licensed conveyancers (page 13 onwards) and gives some membership numbers.
Split between Advice, referrers and sign posters
Sources of fee income for lawyers by percentage of practice area (page 44/69). Law Society, licensed conveyancers, ILEX etc (pages 50 onwards). Data on the numbers of barristers (page 67/92) 1987 – 1999.
Some key stakeholders in the provision of legal services outlined (page 3). 8,700 organisations across three sub-sectors deliver advice supposed by public funding in England & Wales (page 3). Data on Law Society / ILEX membership (page 8). Not available online
Solicitors, CAB, unions etc (page 22) and the type of advice they give (page 27).
Solicitors firms, advice agencies, other legal services (page 3). Not available online
Size of legal expense insurance market in various EU countries – 1996 – page 10.
Research into Lone parents advice seeking behaviour found that:
Across the range of problems, 55 per cent had contacted a solicitor, and 34 per cent had approached a Citizens Advice Bureau or other advice agency.
For some problem types, there was no obvious ‘market leader’ which lone parents clearly identified as the main source of advice.
Solicitors were a key resource for many problem types, particularly in the core family law areas.
When lone parents sought advice, they sought it from elsewhere in respect of one-third of contact/residence etc problems, and over half of domestic violence/harassment problems. Nor was it uncommon for solicitors to be approached at some stage in relation to a problem, only for lone parents to
find more substantial advice elsewhere. Other sources included the telephone help lines operated by OPF and other organisations, and the police (the police
were approached for advice on over half of domestic violence/harassment problems).
Lone parents also took fewer of their social welfare law problems to solicitors. In terms of independent advice, debt problems in particular were more the preserve of Citizens Advice Bureaux. Many lone parents with benefits or child support problems sought advice from the agencies administering the systems. Almost half with significant benefits problems approached the Benefits Agency, and almost three-quarters with significant child support problems sought advice from the CSA. However, a substantial proportion of lone parents turning to these agencies did not consider them a substantial source of advice.
This is indicative of a need for further, independent advice, which did not appear to have been met to a great degree by either solicitors or Citizens Advice Bureaux. Lone parents did turn to other sources for advice on benefits, but were less likely to do so in respect of child support problems. This
may reflect the sense of fatalism regarding dealings with the CSA, and the belief that challenging decisions is futile, which our focus groups exposed.
The pattern of advice seeking by lone parents facing domestic violence was different than for most other problems, with a higher proportion approaching
multiple sources. The role of solicitors is more limited than might be expected for a core area of family law work. This is in line with other research that suggests a reluctance to seek outside help initially, and a need to access different avenues of help when the problem reaches sufficient seriousness to
force the victim to respond.
Reports that Quality Solicitors opened 15 branches in May 2010, and has plans for branches by May 2011.
Reports that “no records are kept of how many paralegals are employed within solicitors’ firms. Our best estimate is somewhere between 35,000 – 40,000, i.e. circa 44% of all fee-earners in solicitors’ firms.” Page 1
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole:
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole – page 6
Reporting on the solicitors profession as a whole in 2004:
Report discusses the Community Legal Service (page 5). community legal service partners – and what they comprise (solicitors firms, CAB, local authorities etc) – page 12.
Report breaks down advisors to SMEs by advisor type (page 12).
Report there are 15,000 barristers in practice (page 10) 12,000 self employed, 3,000 employed
Report that there were 2000 CAB outlets in England and Wales and Northern Ireland (page 2). Also Law Centres Federation, Disability Information and Advice Link, and Advice UK (page 3)
Report Community Legal Advice Centres and Community Legal Advice Networks (page 12). The core Social welfare law advice services provide: community care, debt, employment, housing and welfare benefits (page 12). Supply of legal aid is split among 2,000 separate agencies (page 20).
Refers to 2004 CJSJ study, where market for debt advice was broken down as follows: advice agency (typically a Citizens Advice Bureau) (37 per cent), a local authority (34 per cent), a solicitor (11 per cent), an insurance company (5 per cent) or a financial institution (5 per cent). People also reported having obtained advice from a variety of other sources, such as regulatory authorities, politicians and social workers.
Ratioanle for organisations to use Law Costs Draftsmen – page 10
Provides a snapshot of different legal professions – page 5. Data on size of legal market in 2007 – and other professions (page 8). English employment data (page 11).
Promotes the existence of the trade mark profession. Profession has 1,500 members worldwide
Pro Bono work defined as ‘The delivery of free legal services to individuals, organisations and communities in need’.
51% of solicitor respondents had conducted pro bono work in the preceding year. Solicitors conducting pro bono work in the past year had spent, on average 43 hours on pro bono clients, less than the 62 hours recorded in 2002 – page 4
Solicitors who spent 75 per cent or more of their fee earning time on legally aided clients had spent, on average, 86 hours on pro bono work, an increase on the 70 hours spent by solicitors doing the same proportion of work for legally aided clients in 2002. Some of this may reflect the stated tendency for legal aid solicitors to work on cases which are out of the scope of legal aid, and to work on matters incidental to legal aid cases which are not covered by certification. – Page 15
Over three fifths of solicitors in small (2-4 partner) and medium sized (5-10 and 11-25 partner) firms reported that the decision was left to individual fee earners. A higher proportion of solicitors working in firms in sole practices (26 per cent) and in firms with over 26 partners (46 per cent) indicated that pro bono work was encouraged by the firm. Only 9 per cent of solicitors said their firm discourages pro bono work and just 2 per cent said pro bono work was prohibited. Page 16
About one fifth of all solicitors (21 per cent) said that their firm had a designated pro bono co-ordinator – Page 18
Proportion of solicitors in each firm size band pro bono working for client type – Page 26
Type of pro bono activities undertaken by size of firm – Page 27
Pie chart summarising which organisations barristers work for (page 2).
Page summarises some of the umbrella organisations of legal service providers (page 4).
Page seven – a list of possible sources of advice
Page 3 – the number of solicitors the SRA regulates, and how the numbers have changed over past few years (page 4).
Page 3 – a summary of some key stakeholders in the provision of legal advice. 8,700 organisations delivering legal advice via public funding (page 6). May be an under-estimate (page 6). Breakdown of survey responses – what organisations do survey respondent work for? (page 11)
Overview of legal services market as at 2003
- slide 4
Overview of citizens advice services in the UK – Page 6
Over half of TV Edwards turnover comes from defence work and 15 out of 40 fee earners have higher rights of audience, including three barristers, and 80% of advocacy work is handled in house. Page 21
Outlines Barristers licensed access:
Licensed Access enables organisations and individuals with appropriate experience and expertise to use the specialist advice and advocacy services of barristers without the intervention of a solicitor, as the Bar recognises that there are many areas of work in which clients face unnecessary costs in instructing both solicitors and barristers. The scheme operates through a licensing system run by the Access to the Bar Standards Board and applications for a licence to instruct barristers directly can be made to the Bar Council.
Licensed access recognises that there are significant areas of work in which the traditional two layered legal system in which the Bar insists that only a solicitor can refer work to it may unnecessarily increase the costs which the client is required to bear. Licensed access seeks to highlight the fields of practice in which barristers are positioned to provide specialised advisory and advocacy services on a competitive and cost effective basis without the intervention of a solicitor. It demonstrates the areas of work in which the skills and training of a barrister are compatible with direct access from organisations and individuals whose own training, skills and experience equip them to instruct a barrister directly.
Outline of the role of legal executives – a Legal Executive lawyer is able to undertake all work that may be undertaken by a solicitor under the supervision of the solicitor, currently subject to specific rights of audience limitations. However a Legal Executive lawyer who has successfully completed and passed the advocacy skills course and evidence test may apply to ILEX for the relevant rights of audience certificate. ILEX is then able to award the rights of audience under the prescribed certificate.
Legal Executives can act as Commissioners for Oaths, claims managers, immigration and asylum services, and give advice on compromise agreements. Additionally Legal Executives of three years’ good standing can sign client account cheques drawn on their principals’ client account.
Legal Executive lawyers employed by Local Authorities or Housing Management Organisations (exercising Local Authority Housing functions) can also exercise certain rights of audience in the magistrates’ courts and county courts acting on behalf of their local authority or housing management employer along with other employees. Legal Executive lawyers are categorised as conveyancers for certain purposes under the Land Registration Rules and in most cases may sign transfer deeds on behalf of their employers in conveyancing transactions
NFP providers are increasingly replacing law firms as providers of legal aid advice (page 2). Further details of breakdown between not for profit and for profit providers (page 8)
More than 16 per cent of solicitors belong to at least one accreditation scheme. Verifying and recognising an individual’s expertise and experience in a given area of law is accomplished during the process of accreditation.
In total, more than 18,000 legal professionals are members of our accreditation schemes. Our accreditation schemes cover the following areas Children Law, Commercial and Civil Mediation, Clinical Negligence, Criminal Litigation, Family Law, Family Law Advanced, Family Mediation, Immigration and Asylum, Mental Health Tribunal, Personal Injury, Planning Law Solicitors, and in some cases solicitors’ employees can apply for membership of any Law Society accreditation scheme as long as they meet the eligibility criteria and can subsequently prove their competence.
Members of Advice Centres Alliance summarised (page 1) – 1,700 organisations. http://www.asauk.org.uk/fileLibrary/pdf/RegAltBus.pdf Advice Services Alliance 2009
Constitutional continuity: Jack Straw speech at the London School of Economics Ministry of justice had a budget of £10 bn in 2009 and 80,000 staff. One lawyer per 400 people (page 3).
Market of CAB for advice (not just legal advice) was 2.1 million people, for 7.1 million problems in 2009/10 (page 2). CAB estimate their (largely volunteer) workforce gave out £106 million of advice in 2009/2010.CAB has 394 offices across England & Wales (page 12) – 28,500 people, 21,500 volunteers and 7000 paid staff.
LSC survey stated that 185 respondents who completed its survey represented 50% of the not-for-profit sector.
LSC funded legal advice centres around Community Legal Service and Criminal Defence Service (page 1).Table showing legal aid spend over time period (page 19 – 21).
London is the major centre in international legal services, delivered by international legal services.
Breakdown of the international law firms based in London – Page 1-5
Range of international legal services – Page 6
Litigation is a court based dispute resolution process, characterised by preparation of formal pleadings by the parties to the litigation (called ‘particulars of claim’, ‘defence’, and ‘counterclaim’ amongst other court documents), production of evidence (expert evidence or evidence of fact), and the trial before a judge
Legal executives, as well as other legal professionals. 24,000 members (page 1)
Legal executives (page 131) Accessible via subscription only
Legal aid work can be provided by a range of suppliers (listed) – page iii. More details on legal aid providers (page 3) and how many cases they handled.
Legal actions against public sector bodies are regularly undertaken in some fields, for instance in medical negligence cases involving the National Health Service. But in most policy areas they are relatively rare, numerically on a par with cases initiated by departments and agencies themselves seeking a clarification of the law. – Page 24
Law Society data from 2006 – 8,900 law firms in E&W – plus other stats about their size (page 10)
Law costs draftsmen are concerned with all aspects of solicitors’ costs that are controlled by both statute and common law. They are concerned with costs relating to all areas of the law and deal with every conceivable type of legal matter that touches upon the subject of costs.
The three main areas in which law costs draftsmen may become involved are:
1. solicitor and client costs – In a dispute over costs a law costs draftsman may be instructed to prepare a detailed bill of costs for assessment, to advise on law and procedure and, subsequently, if instructed by a solicitor or a litigant, to argue in support or to oppose the bill.
2. Public Funded (legal aid) costs: where a solicitor is representing a publicly-funded client, a detailed bill is usually required to be assessed either by the court or the Legal Services Commission before payment can be made out of the community legal fund to the solicitor. Whilst such bills are usually assessed without any formal hearing, if an amount has been disallowed in respect of which the solicitor wishes to object, an appointment can be obtained and the matter argued at a hearing. In criminal cases, the objections to an amount disallowed are usually made in writing and, often, a law costs draftsman will be instructed to prepare the written submissions
3. Costs payable between parties: the unsuccessful litigant is usually ordered to pay the successful litigant’s costs and, if those costs cannot be agreed, a detailed bill is prepared and served
The recommended method of entry to the profession is via a solicitor’s office where a general knowledge of law and legal practice can be first obtained. However, many law costs draftsmen are self-employed and often work from home – Page 3
Law Centres Federation comprises 54 law centres in E&W and NI (page 3).
Law Centres are providers of legal services (page 1). Cost of legal issues to the UK is estimated to be £13 bn over 3.5 years (page 4).
It is no secret that the legal profession is highly stratified. Large law firms serve large corporate clients. Solos and small law firms serve consumers and small business. These are two different worlds. Page 1
IPREG List of organisations pre- registered for entity regulation – IPReg’s ability to regulate such firms on an interim basis will increase the opportunities for firms of patent attorneys and trade mark attorneys who currently employ or who are managed by individuals qualified as solicitors to compete with solicitors for certain type of IP-related work.
Information on monthly free advice clinics offering advice on protecting trademarks and avoiding infringements. London based 30minute appointments.
In South Africa, form of legal aid known as Judicare was partially replaced by salaried legal practitioners (page 13). Also summary of other legal service providers – i.e. NGOs, law clinics etc (page 16). 2010 LSRC Conference paper
In relation to intangible assets, survey asked a range of non-law providers for their view, suggesting lawyers are not the only advisors in this legal “space” (page 16).
In relation to criminal advocacy, the document explains that it can be provided both in-house at the CPS, and also by the referral bar (page 1).
In most money cases, most court users do not use legal representation at all (page iii). Use of legal representation varies by type of legal advice dealt with – pages 32 -34.
In June 2009 there were 4995 solicitors with the rights of audience qualification. This represents only four per cent of the total number of practising solicitors. Details of the current holders, broken down by gender, age and race are provided – Page 4
In Japan, a new Japan Legal Support Centre was established in 2006, to deal with both criminal and civil legal issues (page 1). Size of Japanese legal sector discussed (page 5 onward). 2010 LSRC Conference paper
In Germany, traditional firm – funded (to varying degrees) by legal expenses insurance – page 10. 2010 LSRC Conference paper
In Germany, 50 companies offer LEI (page 3). In 2008, German LEI paid out Euro 2.3bn, of which 1.6bn was in lawyers fees (page 3). 2010 LSRC Conference paper
In 2009, The Co-op’s legal services business grew by 45% from £14m to £20m, with operating profits up from £1.7m to £3.8m. The group claims it is now one of the leading providers of wills, probate and estate administration services in the UK. – Page 5
Historic Analysis of criminal legal aid firms by size – pages 106-109
Highlights some differences between solicitor and NfP immigration advice sector
Global market for legal services is US$458.2b (US international Trade Commission) – page 14. Subscription only
Global legal services market $458bn revenue employing 2.4m people in 2007. Europe has a 27% share of revenue. – Slide 4
ONS statistics show a 2.5bn export surplus in UK trade in legal services. – Slide 6
Found that some litigants in person revived assistance outside of court form a variety of sources including: a solicitor (sometimes this was from the opponent’s solicitor), only once was it that another advice agency was involved, very occasionally it was given by friends or family. Local authority social services departments were common sources of assistance in adoption cases. The police and the court were also recorded as giving assistance occasionally on Children Act and divorce cases – Page 30-31
Firms can be domestic – but also many foreign firms (page 3) operating in the UK. Breakdown of total legal workforce – sols and barristers (page 9). More employment stats (page 10).
Doctors and other health professionals made up 7.5% of those people from whom respondents sought advice, providing help in relation to 6% of problems – this is comparable to the advice provided by the CABx (7%)
Discusses the existence of ILEX members throughout the report, but doesn’t give any stats on their market share.
Discusses the community legal service. Comments on the reduction of firms offering legal aid work (page 6). Legal aid work also includes NFP sector (page 13). Law Centres, Shelter etc (page 13).
Discusses costs and number of cases of legal aid work, 1993 to 2003 (page 44). Also breaks down costs per practice area (page 46). Breaks down expenditure costs on higher criminal courts between 1993 and 2002 (solicitors and barristers) page 48. Relative to solicitors, barristers took an increasing share of legal aid budget between 1993 and 2003 (page 49).
Discusses community legal service – CLACS and CLANS (page 5) – offers community care, debt, employment, housing and welfare benefits advice.
Directory of Trade Mark Attorneys
Details of when, a McKenzie Friend may be permitted, what they can and cannot do on behalf of the client.
Details of the Claims management market, which is closely related to the legal services market:
Personal injury claims are the largest part of the claims management market. There are around 2,500 businesses in the market, with a turnover of approximately £250 million. Page 12
Reports that only 30% of those injured in an RTA make an insurance claim. “there has been a significant and steady reduction in the number of causalities reported to the police as a result of RTAs (by some 28% between 1996 and 2007) there has been a significant increase in hospital admissions as a result of road traffic accidents, motor claims reported to the Compensation Recovery Unit and bodily injury claims in respect of road traffic accidents.” Page 29
Sets out the factors that determine the propensity to claim, and why this propensity has increased, stating that CMC are not a causal factor for this increase – pages 29-31
Detailed breakdown of solicitors offering conveyancing services – data is not representative of all conveyancing solicitors.
Includes details of profile and experience of respondent in terms of the amount of time spent delivering conveyancing, size of firms and gearing, use of standardised processes, impact of IT.
Definition and breakdown of different activities that barristers and solicitors do – Page 3 & 4
CPS prosecutors, CPS Direct (page 18 onwards), police.
Co-operative Legal Services (CLS) is a recent co-operative business venture, launched in 2006 as part of the Co-operative Group, to provide a comprehensive suite of consumer legal services to members and customers. CLS is based in two sites in Bristol and currently employs over 200 people. – Page 2
The “business of law” is to:
a. Provide consumers with quality legal advice and assistance….;
b. through a channel they can easily access….;
c. in a manner which they are comfortable with….;
d. at a cost which represents value for money; and
e. in such a way as to support the rule of law.
Conveyancing market includes both solicitors and licensed conveyancers (page 797).
Comparison of lawyers across Europe, including number of lawyers with and without solicitors and trainees – Table 58, monopoly of representation – Table 59
Notaries – 147-148
Comparison of lawyers across Europe
Defines a lawyer as – “… a person qualified and authorised according to the national law to plead and act on behalf of his or her clients, to engage in the practice of law, to appear before the courts or advise and represent his or her clients in legal matters”
Comparison consumer advice providers in France (tabular summary) – page 7 – 12. 18 Consumer Associations in France accredited by the state (page 15). German regime summarised (page 18) – again, consumers tend to join associations and get advice that way. German providers summarised in tabular form (page 20 – 25). More details on German providers (page 26). Swedish providers summarised (page 29 – 37). Netherlands providers (pages 41 – 48)
Comparing findings of US and UK legal need studies:
the specific use of lawyers in the U.K. surveys is roughly the same as in the U.S.: 27% in England and Wales, 29% in Scotland versus 26% in the U.S. Where the substantial difference emerges is in the use of other third-parties. Moreover, because non-lawyers in the U.K. are authorized to give legal advice (such as volunteer-staffed Citizens Advice Bureaux or proprietary legal advice centres), the effective difference is even greater: Americans received advice from those who are able to give legal advice in only 37% of cases, compared to 60-65% of U.K. cases. Furthermore, a far smaller percentage of the U.K. respondents, as compared to U.S. respondents, “lumped” their problem by doing nothing at all: fewer than 5% versus 29% – Page 136
2005 total size of the legal services sector in the United States is thus roughly $226 billion in GDP terms and $277 billion in expenditures on legal services – Page 144
Comparative study: In Brazil, there is an Office of Public Defenders (page 1). Very high number of clients (page 9). 2010 LSRC Conference paper
Community Legal Centres – in Australia – not for profit, community based organisations offering free legal advice (page 2) – 205 in Australia (page 3). 2010 LSRC Conference paper
Community Legal Advice Centres or Networks (page 11).
Community Legal Advice Centres and Networks (CLACs/CLANs):
Claims management companies:
The number of businesses authorised has been much higher, increasing from 951 in June 2007 to 1,778 in July 2008, 2,456 in January 2009 and 2,928 at 30 May 2009. The total size of the market is quite small at under £400 million.
Areas that CMCs operate in include:
Criminal Injuries Compensation – a very small market (around £2 million a year) for claims management businesses
Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit – a small market (around £3 million a year). Most businesses are also in the personal injury market
Employment claims, Housing Disrepair, Consumer credit agreement claims, Endowment claims, miss-selling of PPI, and reclaiming bank fees.
Table showing no of businesses and estimated size of the market by category – Pages 10-11
Summary table size of the claims management market 2007 & 2009 – page 23
Claims intermediaries for PI work – post 2000 (page 17). In relation to clinical negligence, law firms compete to be on the NHSLA panel for defendant work. Down from 100 to 15 in 2001 (page 191). List of various Med Neg claimant firm providers – page 191 – lawyer and non-lawyer led.
Citizens advice, Law Centres Federation etc (page 13).
Citizens advice (page 4) – and also health professionals (page 7). Albiet, advice from health professionals tended to be general in nature (page 10). But data from northern Ireland suggests people seek advice from health professions for 16 per cent of problems.
CCBE represents 700,000 lawyers across Europe.
Career goals of law students breakdown as follows:
Solicitor – 63.8%, Barrister – 17.8%, Other – 18.4% – page 4, though only about 50% of students go on to enter the legal profession – page 7
Brief history of salaried services
Breakdown of what work can be undertaken by barristers under the Direct Access scheme.
Breakdown of the supply of legal services in Hong Kong – slides 3-6
Breakdown of the different categories of work undertaken by the 113 chambers who responded to the survey, including government office region, size by number of barristers, %age who undertake family work, turnover, turnover per barrister.
Smaller sets of Chambers have lower turnover per barrister (median £85,000) than larger sets (£123,000).
Breakdown of when barristers used (case stage and types of hearing)
Thirty-seven per cent of cases were in the field of public law children work, and 27% in the field of private law children work. In almost half (45%) of the private law children case, there were allegations of serious abuse. Financial work – ancillary relief, other property or financial, and Inheritance Act work – accounted for about a quarter of all work (24%). There were relatively few domestic violence cases.
barristers are almost exclusively dealing with cases after proceedings have been issued, and that about two thirds of these cases are in the County Court. About 11% are in the magistrates or Family Proceedings Court, 10% in the principal Registry, and 11% in the High Court
Breakdown of solicitors firms by type – page 5
Breakdown of international legal services – page 6
Breakdown of GLS numbers by departments 1996-2010
Breakdown of barristers by gender, rank, and region
Between 2000 and 2008 report suggests (page 1) that three million cases were handled via legal aid (in the NETHERLANDS) 2010 LSRC Conference paper
Barristers data for 2010 – called to bar, awarded pupil age, self-employed, employed, chambers locations etc.
Bar membership summary page 14 – 11,500 self employed, and 3,500 working for private / public sector.
Bar Council represents 15,000 barristers (page 2)
Australian report on community legal centres – what they did (page 17). 200 of them in total (page 18). 2010 LSRC Conference paper
At present there are about 1,000 licensed conveyancers. Approximately 97 per cent of the market for conveyancing is accounted for by solicitors, with licensed conveyancers accounting for the remaining three per cent – Centre of European Law and Politics Report on the Conveyancing Services Market to DG
Competition Conveyancing Report – December 2007
Based on an average cost of conveyancing to a buyer of £750, and to a seller of £550, we estimate that the conveyancing market value in 2007 was around £2.08 billion, falling to £1.17 billion in 2008. We expect it to fall slightly again for 2009, to about £1.05 billion due to a further decline in transactions – Para 3.78
Asylum advice in London offered by: solicitors funded through the LSC or working privately for a commercial fee; barristers funded through the LSC or privately; voluntary immigration advisers, funded by LSC or by grants; not-for-profit immigration advisers who work at a non-specialist level who get their funding through a variety of sources and must be authorised to practice by the OISC; immigration advisers who charge clients and must be regulated by the OISC
ASA represent some 1,750 organisations in England and Wales which provide a range of advice and other services to members of the public. About 200 of these organisations currently employ a solicitor. Most of these organisations offer services within a local area, but some of them are regional or national. They are largely funded through public sector grants and contracts, and charitable fundraising. With some limited exceptions, services are offered to users free of charge and are focused on areas of law which mainly affect poorer people e.g. welfare benefits, debt, housing, employment, immigration, education and community care. Page 2
ASA is the umbrella organisation for independent advice networks in the U.K. Full membership of ASA is open to national networks of independent advice services in the U.K.
As of the start of 2010 the Bar comprised 15,300 barristers of whom 12,250 were self-employed and 3,050 were employed. In addition here are about 5,000 barristers falling into the categories of non- practising (circa 3,600) and overseas or retired (circa 1,400)… Page 9
Potential for chambers to break up along publically and privately funded lines or into practice groups. Page 18
Chambers combined earnings from legal aid tend to be higher than the top ranking by earnings legal aid solicitors, but largely because they have more fee earners. Bar council statistics indicate that at least 22% of all chambers have more than 50 fee earners. Page 49
Annual statistics for the Bar 2009 including number of chambers – Page 35
Annual statistics for the Bar 2008 including number of chambers – Page 48
Annual statistics for the Bar 2007 including number of chambers – Page 39
Annual statistics for the Bar 2006 including number of chambers – Page 24
Annual Report of Probo legal charity
Annual numbers called to the Bar
An Overview of the Current Distinctions between Legal Services Occupations in 2004 including numbers within each type of profession – Page 5
Although discussing peer review, the appendix (page 37 onwards) lists some “non-traditional” legal service providers, especially in the voluntary sector.
All professions (not just law) account for 8% of GDP – page ii. Further qualification of this category on pages 18 and 19. Balance of payments data (2006) for legal services on page 22.
Age Concern information & advice network covers
A spaghetti junction of providers, systems of provision, and regulators has begun to sprawl across the policy makers desk at the same time as the government has sought to stimulate market driven response to the general legal needs of the population.
A market study undertaken by Ernst & Young reported that:
Solicitors tend to instruct many different barristers. For instance, 49% of solicitors’ practices, which in 2007/8 billed five cases that required an involvement of independent barrister, instructed five different barristers, and 31% of them instructed four different ones. It seems therefore that solicitors can choose between many different barristers and one barrister may substitute for another one if needed.
80% of CABs (340) using CitA outcomes framework. - Page 2
2 Law Centres in England, completing: individual case work; public legal education and prevention; developing legal policy
2009 publication, The British Professions Today: The State of the Sector, showed that professional services account for roughly eight per cent of total UK output, made a huge positive contribution to our balance of payments and employed just under 3.5 million people. Page 3
2006 – legal sector worth £23.25bn – 1.8% of GDP (page 14). Table of legal service suppliers by regulated entity (page 59)
Public access is currently not allowed in almost all areas of family, crime and immigration work. Whilst undertaking public access work, barristers are unable to carry out the functions of the solicitor, which means that in practice any of the activities that would be carried out by the solicitor (filing of documents, communication with the court, writing of letters before action etc) are carried out by the lay client. Although barrister can draft documents and letters on the lay client’s behalf, they must be sent by the lay client and not from the barrister or the barrister’s Chambers. At all stages in the case, barristers are obliged to consider whether it would be beneficial to introduce a solicitor. – Page 1
“Supply” of courts per head of population in UK, compared with elsewhere in Europe (page 29 onwards). And supply of judges (page 35). Public prosecutors per head of population (page 61). Supply of lawyers, both absolute and per 10,000 inhabitants (page 72). Bailiffs numbers mentioned (page 75) and mediator numbers mentioned (page 135).
three national advice works – Citizens advice, Law Centres Federation or Advice UK (page 18)
the formation of the Community Legal Advice Centres and Networks (page 6) – “The core SWL categories include: community care, debt, employment, housing and welfare benefits”
the existence of the Community Legal Advice Centres and the Community Legal Advice Networks (page 19).
the existence of Business Debtline (page 8) and CAB (page 13).
the existance of Community Legal Advice Centres (page 14). Accessible via subscription only
that there are already 10,000 “entities” providing legal services (page 8)
Pro Bono Group (now Law Works) page 22 and Access to Justice Foundation.
on mainstream legal providers, including the institute of paralegals and the Institute of Professional Will writers (page 39 onwards). Also Citizens Advice (page 41).
Direct.gov, Community Legal Advice (page 27) as providers.
Community Legal Advice Centres and Community Legal Advice Networks (page 3). And Community Legal Service (page 24). And who won tenders for this work (page 25). Snapshot of some stakeholder providers who took part in the project’s research (page 32).
CLACS and CLANS (page 12).
Citizens advice and Community legal service (page 36) provision of advice is part of a mixed economy. CLACS and CLANS
CAB and Community Legal Advice line (page 4). Not available online
CAB and Community Legal Advice line (page 4). Accessible via subscription only
bodies who are providing legal services – not for profit and non-law firm (page 6).