Organisation Description Year
Department for Constitutional Affairs

A market analysis of legal aided services provided by barristers

Evidence from Bar suggests that the need for expert knowledge means its difficult for barristers to practice in more than one area of law once their career has begun in earnest (page 20). Data showing number of different specialism practiced by barristers is on page 21. Another study suggests that trend towards specialisation is also driven by move towards specialist chambers (page 22). However, within each area of law (i.e. family) there is little evidence of sub-specialisation (23).

2004
University of Westminster

Postmodern professions? The fragmentation of legal education and the legal profession – Andy Boon, John Flood, Julian Webb

The Law Society tries to determine what is legal knowledge for the purpose of entry into the professions, but its freedom to do so is constrained by other stakeholders (page 3).

2005
Frontier Economics

A market analysis of legal aided services provided by solicitors December 2003

For legal aid barriers to entry for solicitors are achieving the Specialist Quality Mark, and securing a contract.

2003
American Bar Association

eLawyering for a Competitive Advantage

Limited barriers for elawyering although:
The first step in creating an eLawyering practice, is to build a

2008
Office of Fair Trading

Competition in professions

Old report summarising solicitors entry restrictions (page 13 onwards). and barristers entry restrictions (page 14 onwards). Direct entry (education) restrictions summarised (page 16/47) Indirect entry restrictions (page 18/44). More on direct entry restrictions (page 52/77 onwards) – educational requirements etc. Barristers entry requirements again (page 71/96 onwards)

2001
Bar Standards Board

The role of regulation in the future of the bar

Points out that law students must choose their career path at LPC BPTC stage – wants fusing of education, and specialisation later (page 7).

2010
Panel on Fair Access to the Professions

Unleashing Aspiration: The Final Report of the Panel on Fair Access to the Professions

Report examines barriers to entry into legal profession itself (among other percentages). Gives percentage ratios of solicitors, “top” barristers and judges who were independently schooled (page 18). And lawyers tended to grow up in families of above average income (page 20). More stats on family background of sols and barristers (page 24). Internships are overwhelming London based, hindering entry to profession from those outside London (page 102 – 103).

2009
Ministry of Justice

Summary: training and regulating providers of publicly funded legal advice – a case study of civil provision

Detailed breakdown of entry barriers in relation to training of advisors (page 9) – both regulated and unregulated. Further tabular information on pages 13 -14.

2009
Office of Fair Trading

Evaluation of OFT Competition Advocacy Prepared for the Office of Fair Trading by London Economics April 2010

Reports that limiting number of will writers would act as a barrier to entry and increase costs for consumers – similar to most markets. Pages 40-41

A review of the effect of abolishment of solicitors

2010
University of Huddersfield

Training and regulating those providing publically funded legal advice services – a case study in civil provision

Difference in entry barriers between for-profit and not for profit mentioned (page 1). Barriers to entry explored further – for both for profit and not for profit sectors (page 34- 35). Regulating entry in specific areas of practice (page 37). Contractual regulation (i.e. service standards) – page 39. NFP entry discussed (page 119 onwards), following by their training regimes.

2009
Legal Services Policy Institute

After Clementi – The impending legal landscape

Sets out reasons why legal services market attractive to new entrants:
- large fragmented market of series of markets with identifiable over capacity and inefficiency: it is ripe for consolidation and economic restructuring by those with more reach and deeper pockets.
- the reserved, unregulated consumer services will probably be most attractive (hordes of qualified expensive egotistic lawyers are not required, though the

2006
Fordham Law Review

Supply Chains & Porous Boundaries: The Disaggregation of Legal Services, Milton C Regan Jr & Palmer T Heenan

Difficult to define legal services, and other occupations are increasingly providing services former provided only by lawyers. – pages 2153/2154

2010
University of Manchester - Institute for Law, Economy and Global Governance

Liberalization of Legal Services

Summarises entry restrictions (page 2). More entry restrictions summaries (page 12 onwards).

2006
Legal Services Board

Barriers to the legal profession

Entry barriers for individuals: some law firms have developed strong links with independent schools, 56% of those who attend a comprehensive school attend a new university (compared to 33% of those who have been to an independent school), students with connections in the profession are twice as likely to get work experience, financial barrier of LPC, firms target old universities to advertise training contracts

2010
Legal Services Policy Institute

Training for the future: the professional preparation of lawyers for the commercial and regulatory environment after the Legal Services Act 2007

Summarises structure of the LPC (page 7).

2009
Penn State University

European Commission Project Regarding Competition in Professional Services

Entry barriers in E&W compared to other EU states (page36)

2009
Department for Constitutional Affairs

Quality in the legal services industry – a scoping study

Summary of professional qualifications to be a solicitor or barrister (page 18 onwards).

2005