Organisation Description Year
Mayor of London

Into the Labyrinth: legal advice for asylum seekers in London

Asylum seekers have a variety of legal problems: ranging from the asylum application, housing and welfare support, racial harassment, personal injury and family law

2005
Ministry of Justice - Hong Kong

Seminar on

Breakdown of the demand for legal services in Hong Kong including households and small businesses – slides 7-12

2009
National Consumer Council

Finding the will – a report on will-writing behaviour in England and Wales

Characteristics of consumers by will ownership

2007
Ministry of Justice

Baseline survey to assess legal services reform: Consumers experience of using legal services for personal matters

Characteristics of legal service users page 5
Types of services used page 6

2010
University of Southern California Law

Higher Demand, Lower Supply? A Comparative Assessment of the Legal Landscape for Ordinary Americans Gillian K. Hadfield

Commenting on the lack of data available, provides a summary of a US household legal needs study in 1994 where 50% of households experienced one of more legal problems annually.
Of those with legal needs, 37% of the poor sought assistance from a third-party for resolution of the problem, 29% from a specifically legal third party such as a lawyer (21%) or other from a non-legal third party (8%). Among moderate-income households, assistance from a third-party was sought with 51% of problems, 39% from a specifically legal source (lawyers 28%, other legal/judicial 12%).
- page 134

Comparing findings of US and UK legal need studies:
the specific use of lawyers in the U.K. surveys is roughly the same as in the U.S.: 27% in England and Wales, 29% in Scotland versus 26% in the U.S. Where the substantial difference emerges is in the use of other third-parties. Moreover, because non-lawyers in the U.K. are authorized to give legal advice (such as volunteer-staffed Citizens Advice Bureaux or proprietary legal advice centres), the effective difference is even greater: Americans received advice from those who are able to give legal advice in only 37% of cases, compared to 60-65% of U.K. cases. Furthermore, a far smaller percentage of the U.K. respondents, as compared to U.S. respondents,

2010
European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ)

European judicial systemsEdition 2006 (data 2004):Efficiency and quality of justice

Comparison of users of courts across Europe, pages 53-58

2006
Legal Services Research Centre

The experience of relationship breakdown and civil law problems by people in different forms of relationshipJoanna Miles, Trinity College, CambridgePascoe Pleasence, Head of the Legal Services Research Centre, Legal Services Commission and Visiting Professor, Faculty of Laws, UCLNigel J. Balmer, Principal Researcher, Legal Services Research Centre, Legal Services Commission and Visiting Senior Research, Faculty of Laws, UCL.

Looking at respondents to the CSJS by relationship status.-
Socio-economic differences between married and cohabiting respondents were found to be largely a function of age. Little difference in stability of relationships was evident from these data once age, in particular, was accounted for. The presence of children tended to increase the stability of relationships regardless of form. Cohabitants, particularly those with children, were more likely to report family-related problems, though there was evidence that many of these problems concerned earlier relationships. Problems associated with relationship breakdown routinely resulted in adverse consequences such as ill-health, loss of income, loss of a home or domestic violence.
Page 1

Examining the data by reference to relationship status, cohabitants without children were most likely to report problems. However, they were not particularly more likely to do so than married respondents living with their spouse and without children. Those with children living in their household were typically less likely to report problems, especially married respondents living with their spouse – Page 8

Of the 84 respondents who reported having experienced problems ancillary to relationship breakdown, 72% reported one or more adverse consequences. Fifty-seven per cent reported that such problems led to stress-related illness; 14% to physical illness; 29% to a loss of confidence; 23% to loss of income; 20% to loss of a home; 19% to personal violence being aimed at them; and 6% to loss of employment.
Page 9

The key findings here are that children are important to the level of impact of such disputes, that negative impacts are commonly experienced, and that the impact may be substantial. Interestingly, respondents without children in their household most often experienced negative impacts (particularly stress-related) associated with disputes relating to children, regardless of whether those respondents had themselves re-partnered. This suggests that the stress associated with contested contact/residence disputes may be a significant source of difficulty for non-resident parents, and not just parents with care. Page 13

2009
European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ)

European judicial systemsEdition 2008 (data 2006):Efficiency and quality of justice

Comparison of users of courts across Europe:
Provision of information -
It is not only important to provide general information on websites, but in order to manage the expectations of the users of the courts, it is also important that users can receive information concerning the

2008
Ministry of Justice

HM Courts Service Probate Service Survey 2009

Consumers of courts service, for example, can be both users and professional advisors (page 5).

2009
Criminal Bar Association

Chairman’s report

CPS are consumers, in the sense that they buy legal services off the referral bar (page 4).

2010
Solicitors Regulation Authority

Consumers and conveyancing: attitudes towards using solicitors for conveyancing services

21% of public who have used legal services in the past 5 years used conveyancing services

2009
Solicitors Regulation Authority

Consumer research study: experiences of black and minority ethnic people using solicitors in England and Wales

28% of BME people in England and Wales have used a solicitor in the past five years – most commonly for property transactions.

2009
Solicitors Regulation Authority

Consumer research study: a survey of public attitudes towards solicitors

41% of the general public in England and Wales have used a solicitor in the past five years

2008
HMCPSI (Her Majesty's Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate)

Report of the thematic review of the quality of prosecution advocacy and case presentation

CPS as a consumer of advocacy services – Table of CPS advocate deployment levels 2004-2009 including estimated level of counsel fees saved by CPS – page 61

2009
Ministry of Justice

Access to justice: a review of the existing evidence of the experiences of adults with mental health problems

44% of adults with psychiatric disorders reported debt and relationship problems, compared to 23% of those with no disorder

2009
National Office of Statistics

Business demography 2010 – Enterprise births, deaths and survivalDate: 6 December 2011

Data on business lifecycles. Potential indicator of annual legal needs at business start up stage.

2008
Psychiatry, psychology and law

Mental Health and the Experience of Social Problems Involving Rights: Findings from the United Kingdom and New Zealand

Discussion on the propensity of people with mental health issues to have rights problems. Stats on need by type of law on page 133.

2009
Legal Services Research Centre

Piecing it Together:Exploring One-Stop Shop Legal Service Delivery in Community Legal Advice Centres

Distinguishes 2 type of motivation for seeking advice:
Those clients who needed assistance with forms or paperwork were typically having difficulty understanding and completing the paperwork due to a number of factors including age, learning difficulties, health problems, and language difficulties. This group also included those who were attending in proxy for another person. Typically these clients were representing a friend or relative who was either physically unable to get to the CLAC themselves or who was unable
to ask for the help they needed because of a learning or language difficulty.
Page 39

Clients who came to the CLAC for advice concerning an ongoing legal problem had typically attempted to manage the problem themselves and had reached a crisis point in the problem which they could no longer manage alone. These clients were at imminent risk of losing something significant in their lives. Some were at the point of losing their home, others were in fear of losing contact with someone such as their children following a marital separation. Clients were also motivated to seek advice in response to an action from another party, such as receiving a letter from the bank or debtors, or receiving court papers – Page 40

The population of clients who came to the CLACs for advice showed a range of vulnerabilities, including learning and language difficulties, complex physical and mental health needs and cultural issues. This meant that for many clients there were potential intellectual barriers to accessing advice, such as difficulties in completing paperwork, intellectually accessing the information and advice needed, understanding the advice given and carrying out the actions given to them by advisors. The importance of offering inclusive advice which could be accessed by any client irrespective of their age, ethnicity, intellect, and physical and mental health was highlighted by clients and advisors. – Page 48

The most common problems at CLACs were associated with welfare benefits and these were often presented as mistakes on the part of benefits offices, debt and employment. Page 92

Clients present their problems in different ways:
Clear and purposeful – awareness of the impacts of the problem, and specific. Taking client details sometimes got clients to express the kind of help they were seeking.
Unspecific – client not really sure why they are there and describing problem in vague terms.
Pages 93-94

Reports evidence of problem clustering -
This clustering took different forms. It included clustering of the same types of problems, for example around debt. Clients also experienced different categories of problems, which were, however, related; such as interconnected welfare benefits, debt and housing problems. In addition, clients also had multiple problems that were not inter-linked. A few clients only appeared to have one problem. – Page 95
Inter related clusters -
Inter-related clusters were often

2010
Legal Services Research Centre

Community legal advice centre: a survey of clients in reception

Survey data on demographic users of CLAC within sample – compared with population as a whole (pages 15 – 21).

2010
Legal Services Research Centre

About the occurrence and the coincidence of justiciable problems among citizens seeking justice within the system of legal aidMr. Dr. L. Combrink-Kuiters and Dr. S.L. Peters

DUTCH STUDY: users of legal aid are on average more often male, between 20 and 45 years old, and less often younger than 15 and older than 60. They are relatively often unemployed. If users are classified according to socio-economic categories as used by the CBS, it appears that students, employees and pensioners are underrepresented and that benefit recipients and other inactive persons are overrepresented. The average legal aid user is more often divorced or single; persons living in a single-parent family are overrepresented in the group of legal aid users. Married people without children, in particular, are underrepresented; this will often concern couples in which both partners have an income. On average, the users of legal aid belong more often to the group of non-Western ethnic minorities. They live relatively often in towns with populations over 250,000 and less often in towns with populations under 50,000 (page 4).

2010
Changing Ageing Partnership

Digital divide, older people and online legal advice

Elderly: Most common issues – care home fees, wills and estate management

2009
Barrow Cadbury

Lost in transition: a report of the Barrow Cadbury Commission on Young Adults and the Criminal Justice System

Focused on young adults in prison

2005
Legal Services Research Centre

Understanding advice seeking behaviour: further findings from the LSRC survey of justiciable problems

general population – most common problems: consumer, neighbours, money/debt, employment, personal injury and rented accommodation. Respondents living in temporary accommodation – most common problems: rented accommodation, money/debt, employment, domestic violence and discrimination

2004
Law & Justice Foudation of New Sourth Wales

Outreach legal services to people with complex needs: what works?

Impact of outreach services to socially excluded

2009
Ministry of Justice

HM Courts Service Court User Survey 2008-2009

In relation to court user survey ONLY, stats on the typical court users by various diversity demographics (page 38 – 39)

2009
Lord Chancellor's department

The effectiveness of representations at tribunals Hazel Genn & Yvette Genn

Social service tribunal demographics within survey sample group (page 12), immigration (page 28), industrial tribunals (page 37), mental health tribunals (page 54).

1989
Solicitors Regulation Authority

A survey of public attitudes towards conveyancing services, conducted on behalf of: Solicitors Regulation Authority

In the conveyancing market, Abs and young people are most likely to have used a solicitor in the past five years (page 6).

2009
Legal Services Research Centre

Criminal Case Profiling Study: Final report 2001Pascoe Pleasance Hannah Quirk

Study reported that criminal clients were local, young, male, unemployed recidivists. Around nine-tenths of the clients in the sample cases were local, over a half were under 26, just under nine-tenths were male, approaching two-thirds were unemployed and two-thirds definitely had prior convictions. The average age of clients at the offence date was twenty-seven.
Almost two-thirds of clients were unemployed. The figure was the same for both male and female clients, but there seemed to be a difference between ethnic categories. Fewer than average Asian clients were unemployed (50%), more than average black clients were (70%) and the unemployment figure for white clients was more or less mid-way between the two. As well as having no job, many seemed not to have a permanent address at which they could be contacted. Letters would therefore be sent

2001
Legal Services Research Centre

Report of the 2007 English and Welsh Civil and Social Justice Survey

Incidence of legal problems by problem type and respondent characteristics – pages 10-31
Experience of multiple problems by respondent characteristics – pages 32 – 34
Experience of those eligible for legal aid – pages 66-72

2008
Legal Services Policy Institute

After Clementi – The impending legal landscape

Suggest that since two thirds of the legal market by value does not affect the consumer, the interests of the commercial and public sector clients should be treated differently, and not termed consumers because the balance of power does not favour the lawyer. Page 3

2006
Advice Services Alliance

Advice Services and Legal Capability Martin Jones and Theresa Harris Advice Services Alliance

Summarises LSRC findings on legal knowledge, and role of public law education. Defines legal capability in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

2009
Legal Services Research Centre

Money Advice Outreach Evaluation: Qualitative Outcomes for Clients

Summarises what kind of problems people seeking money advice had (page 27 – 28, pages 30 – 35).

2008
Legal Services Research Centre

Criminal defence services: users’ perspective

Survey of police station court defendants – stats of survey participants (page 8 – 9).

2008
Advice Services Alliance

Review of outcomes frameworks

The advice sector provides services for high numbers of clients not fluent in English and also disabled clients and clients with mental health problems. Some clients move house and change their phone numbers frequently.
Reports on the difficulty of getting a representative sample of clients – Pages 4-5

2009
Legal Services Research Centre

Transforming legal aid: Access to criminal defence services Dr Vicky Kemp

the seriousness of the offence had a significant impact, with increased use of legal advisers in police stations for

2010
Cardiff University

Litigants in person Unrepresented litigants in first instance proceedings Professor Richard Moorhead and Mark Sefton Cardiff University

Research into unrepresented litigants found that:
some unrepresented litigants are in fact institutional repeat players (local authorities and housing associations in particular), whereas others are much more like the archetypical private litigants in person: individuals or small businesses.- Page 5

Breaks down litigants into 3 types:
1. Institutional litigants included the following: government bodies such as the DSS and the Collector of Taxes; local authorities; housing associations; health authorities and hospitals; quasi public bodies (e.g. the Motor Insurance Bureau, charities and schools); the police and fire authorities. Institutional litigants in person who, in spite of the absence of independent, professionally qualified legal representation, are likely to be repeat players and may have sufficient expertise in house to do a similar job of representing themselves as an independent lawyer would do.
2. Business litigants included sole traders, partnerships, and (private or public) limited companies.
3. Individual Litigants
Pages 36-37

Characteristics of LIPs:
Family -
More cases involved male unrepresented litigants than female unrepresented litigants: 48% of cases involved a male litigant in person, 38% involved a female litigant in person and 13% involved both a male and female litigation in person. It is also noticeable that in ancillary relief, divorces and injunction cases, if there was an unrepresented applicant, it was more often a woman that brought the application. Where the respondent was unrepresented, in ancillary relief, divorce and injunctions it was usually the man. The opposite was true for Children Act applications, unrepresented male applicants were more common than female applicants and unrepresented respondents were more likely to be women. Page 67

Indications of vulnerability included being victims of violence, depression, alcoholism, young, lone parents (18 or younger), drug use, histories of imprisonment, mental illness, living in temporary accommodation with the children, illiteracy, terminal illness, and involvement with social services. There were differences by case type. 30% (15) of adoption cases had an unrepresented litigant with some kind of vulnerability. The figures were 20% of injunctions and 15% of Children Act cases. Only 7% of any ancillary relief cases and 5% of divorce cases contained an indication of vulnerability. – Page 70

Summary discussion of LIPs – Pages 245 -265

2005
Bar Standards Board

Application for approval by the Legal Services Board Amendments to the regulatory arrangements in respect of the application of the Public Access scheme Annex 6 – Summary of Responses to the Public Access Rules Questionnaires

There were complaints that solicitors and laymen did not understand how the Public Access system worked, and that lay clients did not properly understand what counsel could and could not do when instructed. Some comments suggested that lay clients had come directly to barristers after bad experiences with solicitors, and that where barristers had been obliged to

2010
Legal Services Board

Legal Advice for Small Businesses Qualitative Research

Significant differences between the range of legal problems faced by sole traders and micro business (those with less than 10 employees) – page ii
Most common issues for all small firms include business set up, contracts, tax, and regulation. Once firms take on staff they are faced with additional problems including employees contracts, health & safety, and property. Many sole traders are unwilling to exp[and their businesses as a result of these problems – page ii

2010
TUC

Britain’s Unions

TUC membership now stands at 58 unions, representing nearly six and a half million people – list of unions and details of memberships size (no information on legal services use)

2010
Legal Services Research Centre

Report of the 2006 English and Welsh Civil and Social Justice Survey

Incidence of legal problems by problem type and respondent characteristics – pages 10-31
Experience of multiple problems by respondent characteristics – pages 32 – 35
Experience of those eligible for legal aid – pages 69-75

2007
Legal Services Research Centre

Causes of Action: Civil Law and Social JusticeThe Final Report of the First LSRC Survey of Justiciable Problems – Revised 2nd Edition

Incidence of legal problems by problem type and respondent characteristics – pages 15-52
Experience of multiple problems by respondent characteristics – pages 52 – 60

2006
Legal Services Research Centre

Causes of Action: Civil Law and Social JusticeThe Final Report of the First LSRC Survey of Justiciable Problems

Incidence of legal problems by problem type and respondent characteristics – pages 9-48

2004
Financial Services Authority

Why Regulate? HENRY THORNTON LECTURE CITY UNIVERSITY BUSINESS SCHOOL 4 NOVEMBER 1998 Howard Davies Chairman, Financial Services Authority

It is a market characterised by asymmetric information, which makes it difficult for buyers to assess the risks and returns of the transactions they undertake. This problem of asymmetric information is especially acute in the case of long term contracts, where the expected returns may not appear for many years, and for small creditors of banks and savings institutions who may lack the ability to undertake their own credit assessments, except at quite unreasonable cost.

It is useful to think of two types of information asymmetry:

first, the nature of the contract between the firm and the individual may be difficult to understand, both in respect of what it is designed to achieve, and in relation to the in-built charges.
second, the performance against the terms of a contract will depend on the financial soundness of the firm, and the retail customer does not have the expertise to judge that soundness, nor can she acquire the information needed to do so except at an unrealistic cost.

The difficulty is that just as consumers cannot easily recognise a good product, so they do not always have the information they need to recognise a good adviser.

there are strong incentives for firms to offer commission to advisers who recommend their products, and one might expect this to lead to there being a high share of commission in the adviser

1998
Department of Justice, Canada

A National Survey of the Civil Justice Problems of Low and Moderate Income Canadians: Incidence and Patterns

Legal needs for low an moderate incomes in Canada

2006
Legal Services Research Centre

Outreach advice for debt problems: Research and evaluation of outreach services for financially excluded people.

Legal needs of individuals (experiencing financial problems) using outreach services, including prisoners,

2009
Law & Justice Foudation of New Sourth Wales

Taking justice into custody: the legal needs of prisoners

Legal needs of prisoners

2008
Refugee Council

Lives in the Balance: The quality of immigration legal advice given to separated children seeking asylum

Legal needs of separated children applying for asylum in the UK. All are entitled to legal representation for their application

2011
Department for Constitutional Affairs

Getting earlier, better advice to vulnerable people

Legal needs of socially excluded

2006
Legal Services Research Centre

Study of Defendants in Magistrates

Unrepresented defendant reasons for not having a solicitor in court include – they

2009
JP Morgan Asset Management

Maximising the value of an IFA relationship

Legal needs over life time – Slide 9

2010
Cardiff University

The Advice Needs of Lone Parents Richard Moorhead, Mark Sefton and Gillian Douglas

Lone parents defined as -
Lone parents are defined for our purposes as single parents with resident care of one or more children under the age of 18. A parent without resident care, but with, for example, visiting contact, was not classified as a lone parent. – Page 12

9.6% of households and one in four families are headed by a lone parent. Description of types of lone parent, employment status, benefits recipients, and diversity – Pages 15-17

Reporting on LSRC data:
Lone parents are considerably more likely than other
family types to experience justiciable problems

2004
Youth Access

Rights to access: meeting young people’s needs for advice

Young people’s needs are complex and diverse, more than simple family law, juvenile justice and child protection. The need for legal advice on discrimination, education, benefits, mental health and crime will be higher in areas with relatively large Afro-Caribbean populations

2002
Ministry of Justice

The problems and needs of newly sentenced prisoners

Prisoners start sentences with a range of health and social problems. Nearly 50% had been unemployed prior to incarceration, 13% had never had a job and 46% had no qualifications. 15% were living in temporary accommodation or were homeless before custody

2008
Legal Services Research Centre

Social Exclusion and Civil Law: Experience of Civil Justice Problems among Vulnerable Groups

Long-term illness and disability and low income results in increases in the probability of domestic violence. Long-term illness and disability more likely to report discrimination, medical negligence and mental health problems. Young respondents more likely to report rented housing problems, homelessness and unfair police treatment – less likely to report employment, neighbour problems, divorce and children problems. Low income respondents more likely to report rented housing problems, homelessness, welfare benefit and family problems.

2005
Skills and Learning Intelligence Model

Moving towards inclusion: A picture of disadvantage in the South West

Proportion of lone parents in Britain and their make-up

2003
Law & Justice Foudation of New Sourth Wales

Taking Justice into custody: prisoners legal need and access to justice – Draft – paper to the 8th LSRC conferenceSuzie Forell

Looks at the civil legal needs of prisoners in New South Wales through the stages of custody

2010
Unbiased.co.uk

Legal Advice Report

Reports finding of a survey of 2,146 people, representative of the Uk population. Survey found:

25% of all adults (11,947,000 people) have had cause to seek legal advice in the last two years.

The most popular reasons that people sought legal advice in the last two years were for house buying or property issues (27%), personal injury claims (15%), writing a will (12%), employment issues (12%) or for a personal dispute (10%).

When seeking legal advice in the last two years 30% of woman sought advice on property sales or issues compared to 25% of men. 14% of women took legal advice for writing a will while 10% of men did so. More men (15%) sought legal advice for employment issues than women (9%). 10% of men sought legal advice for criminal charges compared to only 4% of women.

2009
Legal Services Research Centre

Criminal offending, social and financial exclusion, and civil legal aid

Of those arrested, survey found that a greater percentage had “difficult to solve” civil legal problem, compared with other people (page 1). Also more likely to have multiple problems

2009
Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Paths to justice in the Netherlands: looking for signs of social exclusion

Reports on survey of legal needs in Netherlands:
1) the incidence of justiciable problems within the population; (2) the kind of strategies people choose to solve their problems; (3) the outcome of different strategies for resolving justiciable problems; (4) the public’s perceptions of the legal system

2004
Solicitors Regulation Authority

Commissioned research into issues of disproportionality

Of those who approach CAB: 14% experience benefit problems, 8% experience housing, employment, health or consumer problems.

2010
Youth Access

Young People

Reports the incidence of problems amongst younger people from CSJS & Yout5h Access research:
– 35% of 18-24s reported one or more problems (compared to 33% of over 24s)
- 53% of 23 year olds (peak age)
- 47% of

2007
Department for Constitutional Affairs

Legal and Advice Services: A Pathway to regeneration A Paper by the Department for Constitutional Affairs and the Law Centres Federation May 2004

Often the clients who experience the worst injustices and face the greatest problems are already the most alienated and vulnerable.

2004
Ministry of Justice

Access to justice: a review of the existing evidence of the experiences of minority groups based on ethnicity, identity and sexuality

Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals more likely to be victims of household crimes; ethnic minorities experience higher levels of victimisation

2009
Legal Services Research Centre

The health costs of civil-law problems: further evidence of links between civil-law problems and morbidity, and the consequential use of heath services

People with long-term illnesses or disability were more likely to have a legal need (page358). Tabular data on page 361.

2008
European University Institute

The market failure justification for the regulation of professional service markets and the characteristics of consumers

Points out huge range in client needs (buying a croft in Scotland to suing a supplier of computers) – page 6.

2004
Legal Services Research Centre

Young People, Advice & Mental Health:A Data Digest

Using CSJS data reports on prevalence of problems by age group:
Table 14 problem prevalence (of one or more problem of any
type), by age of respondent and within discrete groups of 18-24 year old respondents (i.e. by economic activity, whether or not they are parents, age subgroups and by illness/disability or mental health issues).

18-24 year olds had a similar problem prevalence to 45-
59 year olds and a lower prevalence than 25-34 and 35-44 year olds. However, percentage reporting problems increased considerably for NEETs and young parents, while illness/disability and particularly mental health problems resulted in particularly high prevalence

While 18-24 year olds typically report fewer problems than some other age groups (i.e. 25-44 year olds), young NEETs, young parents and young people with mental health problems all reported more problems in addition to having generally higher problem prevalence. Tables 16-22 report prevalence of problem types by category.

Including the findings of the General Health Questionnaire (twelve questions relating to psychiatric disorder, each with a four point scale (e.g. better than usual, same as usual, less than usual, much less than usual), shows that GHQ-12 caseness was related to increases in problem prevalence for all age groups, with the 18-24 year old group showing among the highest proportional increase.
Pages 11-20

Table 31. Broad problem-solving strategy by age and for discrete subsets of 18-24 year olds.
Table 32. Problem-solving strategy adopted by 18-24 year olds when faced with the eighteen problem types covered in the CSJS

2009
Legal Services Board

Legal Advice for Small Businesses Qualitative Research

Presents finding of research into Small Business Consumers:
- Distinction between Sole Traders & Micro Businesses (slide 9)
- Big three issues are business set up, cash flow/commercial contracts, tax and regulation (slides 10-14)
- Other issues including employee, H&S, consumer and contract law, property, and trading issues – slides 15-16.
Rarely seek issue resolution.

2010
Legal Services Research Centre

Lone Parents and Civil Justice : Their Experience of Problems and Their Advice-seeking Behaviour

Lone parents – demographic profile

2004
UCL

Why the courts are as important as hospitals to the nation’s health

What access to justice provides for business is:
There is a worldwide political consensus that

2009
Citizens Advice

Locked out: CAB evidence on prisoners and ex-offenders

Prisoners and ex-offenders. This study is only based on those using the outreach services. This is broken down into the types of problems prisoners experience

2007