An online survey of 1,010 premature complainants was undertaken. The sample came from contact details held by the Legal Ombudsman of all who had made a premature complaint since October 2010 and for whom an email address was collected.
This report was commissioned in order to investigate the attitudes and experiences of first-tier complainants within the legal services domain, and to understand what typifies both good and bad complaints processes.
Overconfidence as a source of over-litigation
Provides table of figures for unrepresented trade mark applicants dating from 2000 to 2010
Convention (page 6) gives defendants qualified right to free legal advice “when the interests of justice” so require.
Austrailian study. Funding of legal aid in the country by way of comparison (page 4). Suggests new ways of arranging legal aid payments (Austrailian-specific) – page 9. More per capita funding data (page 25). More per capita comparisons with other countries (page 52).
CAB is generally funded by the public sector (page 13).
CFA and DBCF funding arrangements discussed (page 3) and also after the event insurance (pages 4 -5). Trade union funding, before the event insurance (page 7).
CFAs legal work is supported by after the event insurance (page 4).
Clients who get advice from Advice Centre Alliance members generally do not pay for that advice (page 2). Report summarised which bodies Legal Services Commission pays for (page 3), and also other source of advice funding (page 3 – 4).
Clinical negligence work is legally aid funded, generally in claims above
21 per cent said an advice source was too expensive. Solicitors were by far the most common target of this complaint. – Page 36
Compares legal aid systems across Europe:
Legal aid is defined in the explanatory note to the Evaluation Scheme as: aid given by the State to persons who do not have sufficient financial means to defend themselves before a court (or to initiate a court proceeding). In this definition, legal aid mainly concerns legal representation before the court. However, legal aid consists also in legal advice. In fact, not all citizens who are faced with judicial problems initiate judicial proceedings before the court. In some cases legal advice can be sufficient to solve a legal issue – Page 46
Clusters the member states in five classes (from the lowest level
Comparison of legal aid systems across Europe, including average amount granted per case – Pages 45-49
Appendix 1 – Q4 – preferred type of payment structure – page 16
Appendix 1 – Q7 – No win No fee – page 16
Appendix 2 – Q2 – %age of people getting VfM- page 17
Appendix 2 – Q5 – %age of people understanding No win No fee – page 17
Document outlines how clients will pay for their legal advice – CLS, CFA, LEI (page 1).
Across Western Europe, civil legal aid only typically reaches the poorest 30-40% of a country’s population (page 10).
Corporate clients – legal departments – actively utilising LPO activities and making use of networks. Pages 2166/67
England spends far more on legal aid than other countries (page 3). Stat on page 5. Funding options considered (page 8). German LEI insurance summarised. Detailed comparisons of regimes in different countries on pages 23 – 95)
Cost of mediation by CEDR was
Estimates that 59% of (households?) have access to BTE insurance (page 6).Typically car insurance (page 8), holiday insurance or home insurance (page 9). Typical costs on page (10). Further breakdown of types of insurance cover by types of advisor (page 12).
Court users pay a large percentage of the cost for the provision of courts services – poll asked whether this was right (page viii). Report lists who pay court fees – page 1.
Explains how the formation of the CLSP was designed to coordinate the provision of funded advice (page 14). More details on how CLSP work is funded (page 46-47) and by whom.
covers pro bono work (page 21). Suggests a fund / levy on lawyers to fund legal advice (page 21).
Findings of a survey of high end legal buyers, 2010 brochure reports that:
53% of buyers use more than 10 law firms per year, but 28% of buyers are decreasing the number of law forms used. This is being driven by the need to reduce costs, and the ability to get a better rates by using fewer firms, and closer quality control. Good relationships with law firms are also a key driver.
covers that legal aid budget may be cut by
covers that, in Germany, 44% of country has legal expense insurance – so does not need elaborate legal aid system (page 77).
Different incentives for providers of legal expenses insurance – pages 5-7
Reports on large corporates demands for value billing:
Value billing can be defined in different ways in the legal context. The basic idea is that a firm prices its services based on an understanding of the client’s goals and perceived value of reaching those goals. The usual result is a predefined fee for a specified legal service.
The prevailing hourly billing method, under which law firms charge for “actual” time expended on a matter, has proved too unpredictable for corporate budgetary frameworks.
Discusses lawyers’ referral fees – per case average is 250, 700 – average is
Discusses the piloting of the LSC-funded CDS direct (page 20).
8,700 organisations delivering legal advice via public funding (page 6). Further breakdown by percentage of organisations’ total income, per region, (page 9). Some survey respondents also do pro bono work (page 27)
Discussion of potential issues with fixed fees – Pages 114-117
A quarter of legal execs surveyed said they had carried out pro bono (i.e. free) legal work – page i. Frequency of provision of pro bono advice is show in graph on page 6.
Sources of finance for bringing or defending a legal claim include -personal funding, Legal Aid, Before the event insurance, ATE insurance, Trade unions (support its members in litigation by paying the member’s own solicitor’s costs and any costs awarded to the member’s opponent. Many trade unions now insist on their members taking out legal expenses insurance to cover any liability for party and party costs, but some do not and continue to pay such costs from their own funds), Conditional Fee Agreements (agreement with a legal representative, which provides for his or her fees and expenses, or any part of them, to be paid only in certain circumstances – usually only if the client wins the case. Many law firms prefer not to run the risk of not being reimbursed for disbursements if the client should lose, and therefore have a policy of not making disbursements conditional under a CFA. They will usually make an exception for counsel’s fees).
Suggest CLAS, CLAF, or SLAS funding, where ATE insurance is not available (page 5). Summarises current funding mechanisms for civil cases in E&W (page 17) and then explains them over several pages. Explains how CLAF and SLAS schemes are funded in other countries (page 41 – 46).
Report that only 29% of population is now eligible for legal aid (page 7).
Suggests a conviction surcharge that would help pay for criminal legal advice (page 47). Or an insurance scheme for business crimes.
Report covers the extent of legal aid funding in criminal cases in various EU states throughout the report.
Suggests that just under half of adult population of UK is covered by legal expense insurance (page 66) – normally as a bolt on.
Report focuses on diversity findings of a survey that achieved a 35% response rate from the self?employed bar. Provides detailed tables of findings.
Found that those who do any civil work, 37.5% do no publicly funded work, 43% do some but this is less than 50%, and for 19% more than half their work is publicly funded. For family practitioners 64% undertake publicly funded work comprising more than half of their practice, and for criminal practitioners, this is 90%. – page 14
Summarises four payment options in relation to employment cases (page 2). Claimants seem to BELIEVE that paying for service makes it better (page 63). Most survey participants would use funding arrangements again (page 65 – 66).
For multiparty actions the LSC only funds up to
Report on who pays for litigation funding. Various funding options summarised (page 12 onwards). Threshold for litigation funding believed to be
Funding for various types of advice providers summarised (page 13).
Reporting on a representative sample of practitioners by diversity, firm size (with 2-10 partners slightly over represented) grade and age. (Pages 8-10)
Table showing the %age of private practitioners who had worked with different client types:
Private individuals without legal aid – 82%, private sector firms or companies – 64%, Overseas clients – 42%, Legally-aided private individuals – 24%, Public sector bodies – 23%, and other clients (e.g. charities, trade unions) – 21%. page 10
How legal services were paid for, and by matter type – page 7 and page 33
If you did not have to pay for your legal advice,
Because was free 36%, with legal aid 23%, insurance covered 15%
Legal aid most likely reason for ages 18-24 (31%) and 35-44 (37%)
Legal aid most common when renting a property separated from partner accused of a crime made homeless
Legal aid was most commonly used by those with income
Review looking at costs of civil justice states:
Summary of peoples views on different type sof unding for litigation including – legal aid BTE & ATE insurance, CFA’s etc pages 66-145
In this sector, an important funder is individual donations (page 1), charitable organisations, local government. Exact funding breakdown on page 18 – 20.
In 2005, LSC received
Review of CPS advocacy looking at value for money for the CPS in using in house advocates as opposed to self employed barristers.
2007-09 the CPS introduced changes to the systems for office based magistrates
In Australia, per capita spending on legal aid was Aust$8.26 in 2008/2009.
Short – 16 page – paper on litigation funding (in the US). claims firms manage portfolios of cases to balance risk.
Japanese legal aid budget summarised (page 8).
In Europe, most countries do not provide access to legal aid in police custody (page 2).
Legal aid budget coat
In France, legal advice can be provided by consumers associations, which people pay annual memberships of between
Information on legal aid changes in relation to advocacy
In Germany, the loser pays all costs – depending on tariff (page 1). Legal aid funds 8% of cases, insurance 43% coverage. Commercial funding and contingency fees (new). Then Australian funding arrangement (page 2), Portugal (page 2-3), Canada (page 3), Belgium (page 3). Netherlands (page 5), Poland (page 5). Latin America (page 6), England & Wales (page 6-7). New Zealand (page 9-10)
Legal aid funding in Australia – who pays for it (page ii) and how funding has changed over time (page iii). In Queensland, 93% of legal aid cases are family law matters (page 1). More graphs on legal aid funding (pages 5 – 12) – including in comparison with England and Wales.
In Germany, you CANT typically get LEI for criminal or family law (page 2). 35% of all private client funded lawyers advice in German was via LEI (page 5).
Legal aid partly funds 400 of the 1,700 ASA member organisations (page 1).,
In relation to CFAs, even if clients pay a fee, they may still pay charges (page 7). Various payment schemes defined (page 11 – 13) and discussed. Suggests damages-based contingency fees may be prevalent in 11% of employment tribunal cases – page 15. This is expanded upon on page 29 – 30. Contingency fee arrangements not allowed for barristers (page 30). Why DBCF aren’t used (page 33). Brief discussion on legal expense insurance (page 39).
Legal expense insurance is normally bundled with car or home contents insurance in England & Wales, for a small additional premium (page 4). Standalone policies are rare and expensive. Other funding arrangements include third party funding and speculative funding (page 6-7). LEI versus legal aid per capita spending in Europe compared (page 11).
In relation to LSC funded work – the LSC.
Summary of expenditure on legal aid by type of firm (page 52).
In relation to tribunals, covers that legal advice is often paid for by legal expense insurance or union representation (page 41). Also CFAs and after the event insurance (page 42). Take-up of LEI 40-50% in Germany (page 45).
Summary of funding options to pay for solicitors in the advice sector – pages 6 – 8. Also summarises how clients may have to pay for legal aid work, then reclaim money (page 11).
NETHERLANDS report – Around 2.5% of legal aid clients consume 10.7% of the total legal aid budget (page 1)
In South Africa, legal aid pays for many criminal defence cases (page 20) – broken down by level of court. Summary of legal aid provision for civil cases (page 20).
Increasingly Chambers across the Bar are finding that in many areas of work clients are moving away from instructions upon a case by case basis and seeking to outsource work en bloc. There is no automatic nexus between complexity of case and individual instructions. Some local authorities for example have taken the view that they can outsource the entirety of their legal work howsoever complex. They issue a tender document and invite Chambers to bid. This bid might be for the right to be included upon a panel of barristers or Chambers to whom instructions might be sent, but it can also be for the immediate instruction to perform a fixed volume of work over a finite period for an agreed fee i.e. a block contract. The same applies to some large corporations. Some insurance companies in particular use this method of allocating legal work. Page 32
Summary of legal aid expenditure 2001 / 2007 (page 4). Spending is very high compared with other countries. Summary of regime in other countries (page 8). More detailed summary of regime in other countries (page 12 – 19). Per capita spending with other countries compared (page 27).
Page 4 – suggests that 19% of public use legal aid to pay for legal services. Disabled people 30%, BME people 29%
Public expenditure on courts and laid aid compared across Europe (page 19). UK at the high end – page 20 – 21. More on costs of legal aid (page 24).
Table shows funding streams for typical CLAC / CLAN (page 58).
The CPS currently prosecutes just over one million criminal defendants every year. The majority are in the magistrates
The English and Welsh legal aid budget was the highest funded in the world -
One of the biggest selling points that new organisations have over traditional high street firms is their willingness to offer fixed fees and approach law as a transparent business. The legacy of the billable hour may continue to dog traditional solicitors for some time, but those already taking a business approach and agreeing fees up front are reaping the benefits – Page 6
Overview of issues to be considered as part of procuring legal aid – Page 2
If the price is set too high, the DCA will spend more than it needs to, and indeed
solicitors may seek to induce extra demand, particularly in periods when there is a
shortage of other business. If the price is set too low, however, solicitors will be
reluctant to supply and not everyone who is eligible will get access to legal aid
Page 1 ( page 25) sets out proposal for tending for bidding work for police station and magistrates courts.
Up to 49% of criminal legal aid budget can be swallowed by very high cost criminal cases. Compares Germany, which has 46% population covered by legal expense insurance – compared with 1% in the UK (page 13). Discussion on the creation of Contingency Legal Aid fund to fund PI and monetary cases (page 14). Also suggested a criminal defendant levy (page 14)
Summary of what legal aid is spent on (both civil and criminal) page 8. International comparisons (page 10).
Ways in which case were funded in a survey of Family Barristers:
Forty-five per cent of cases were undertaken under the legal aid graduated fee scheme. Just over a quarter of cases (27%) were funded by private clients other than the local authority. Fifteen per cent were funded by the local authority. Five per cent were barristers undertaking work at solicitor
Summary of where legal aid and CLS advice overlap (page 35).
Summary of who funds law centres (page 13 – 14).
Survey compares market penetration of legal expenses insurance in various EU states. GB stated as having 9.8% take-up, compared with 44.0 in Germany (page 2). Further breakdown of who pays for what type of legal advice, and how often, on page 7 and 9. By firm size instructed (page 10). Legal aid funding and expenses insurance funding compared, between countries (page 11).
Table (page 36) shows who are barristers’ main clients for various legal aid practice areas.
The report includes a description of several free advice centres, and covers who funds some of them.
Summary of some of the key sources of funding of the subjects of this report – page 13). Summary of amount paid for legal aid provision (page 36), and how it compares with the rest of the world (page 37). Funding for the advice sector summarised (page 73 onwards).
The taxpayer pays for council’s in-house legal bills (pervasive) but some costs are recouped via fees (page 16).
Summary of what legal aid funded (at time paper was delivered) – page 3 onwards. Also what it costs the public purse (page 5). Demand increased 14-fold in ten year period to 2000/01 (page 8).
Around four in ten of those sampled were not confident that they could judge how good a service from their lawyer was. Furthermore, two thirds would not know how to go about making a complaint if they were unsatisfied with the service they received. the same proportion of people thought that they could not judge how good a service from an accountant was. More felt unable to judge service from MPs and financial advisers. Professions that consumers felt better able to judge included GPs, teachers and police officers.
In the end, despite their belief that they could not judge the quality of service, two-thirds said that they would recommend their lawyer.
It is sometimes suggested that it is common for unrepresented litigants to ‘lawyer shop’ by repeatedly instructing then sacking lawyers when they become unhappy with the advice or service they receive. We have some evidence relevant to this. There were no cases involving unrepresented litigants that interspersed periods of non-representation with more than one period of representation (multiple representation) suggesting that ‘lawyer shopping’ interspersed with periods of non-representation is rare. We did notice in passing that there were some family cases involving wholly represented parties who changed their lawyers, sometimes several times, but because these cases did not involve periods of non-representation we did not collect detailed information on them.
Reporting on Criminal Legal Aid:
Some clients changed solicitors during the conduct of their cases for reasons that were not always from the file. There are many potential reasons for such changes. Some clients seek alternative representation after charge if they have a firm they usually instruct, or if a different firm is recommended to them subsequently, particularly if they are novices (NE/9). Alternatively, a client might develop a grievance with the handling, or the result, of their case and instruct a new firm either to take over matters or to initiate an appeal. Conflict of interests between co-defendants might arise, requiring one or more of them to seek alternative representation.
A change of solicitor requires authority for a transfer of legal aid and not all requests are granted. Within the sample files, there were a number of instances where judges refused to transfer legal aid. Nevertheless, it was indicated that there had been a change of solicitor in 14.2% of all files containing sufficient information. 13.1% of files had been transferred from another solicitors
Suggests that clients will be more inclined to shop around in the future. Page 16
Paper reports how (small) sample of US lawyers admit to overbilling (page 19) – examples of how.
Report indicates that consumers generally shop around for legal advice (page 11).
Research suggests that only a minority of consumers shop around for legal advice (page 5). Further information about consumers tendency not to shop around on page 28.
Summaries results of 40 intervies by GFK, report states that:
Consumers tend to go with a provider reccomeded by a firm, do limited research about different providers, are loyal to previous providers. – page 5
Consumers look for an established provider based on a recommendation from someone they trust, evidence that the provider is experienced in legal practice, and evidence that a provider specialises in there required areas. Confirms service standards and price assessed after purchase.
Consumers see solictor as a indication of quality, and gives them confidence they are purchasing services from a reliable provider. Assume all professionals and staff are qualified to do thier job. – Page 6
Consumers expect all legal services to be regulated, and expected levels of protection similar to existing regulation. Page 7
Consmers unclear as to what represnts good value for money – Page 8
Discussion about whether claimants understand how their advice is being funded (page 29 – 30). And it might not be an issue if their insurer or trade union is funding the case (page 31). But the issue of additional expenses is contentious (page 32 – 38) – even VAT. Discussion about fee explanation (page – 39 – 43). And whether people were happy with final costs (page 43 – 46).
In other sectors (not law) some people who switch supplier end up paying more (page 11).
In the US, clients shop around on the basis of contingency fee percentages (page 9)
21 per cent said an advice source was too expensive. Solicitors were by far the most common target of this complaint. – Page 36
for many of the lone parents, cost was an important factor in whether they would seek advice not only from solicitors, but right across the board. Cost also limited the extent to which advice continued over time. Several focus group participants had not continued with, or reinstructed, solicitors because of cost issues. Even the cost of making telephone calls and/or using the internet was a problem for many.
With regard to accessibility, 61 per cent of respondents felt that telephone advice was cheaper than travelling to a local advice agency, but 36 per cent regarded using the telephone as too expensive. – page 62
Adverse consequences of Civil Justice problems – pages 36 – 39
Adverse consequences of Civil Justice problems – pages 37 – 40
Adverse consequences of Civil Justice problems – pages 60 – 66
Appendix 1 – Q3 – willingness for LEI – page 16
Appendix 2 – Q6 & 7 – views on legal aid and income – page 17
Argues that litigation funding increases the number of claims without merit (page 4).
Constant increases in court fees could lead to a situation where certain groups in the population may no longer be able to afford to undertake litigation. The Council does not believe the current exemption and remission scheme is sufficient to guarantee access to justice.
Councils experience peaks and troughs in demand for in-house legal services – debate on how to deal with them (page 18).
covers data monitor report on PI trends (page 19).
18% drop in housing disrepair legal aid certificates between 1999 and 2000 (page 289).
Report suggests that when telephone advice for police station is offered, take-up increases compared with in-person advice (page 35). CDS Direct caseload projections (page 35)
Demand for divorce advice summarised over time (page 30). Demand for criminal court services (page 33).
Report suggests that, as unemployment goes up, so does the number of CAB enquires (page 1) and to other advice providers (page2).
Demand for legal services sector increasing (page 15).
Some law firms shed 25% of their associates during the downturn in a single year (page 730).
Drivers for demand for criminal defence work
Some law firms shed 25% of their associates during the downturn in a single year (page 730).
Gives breakdown of applications before Court of Appeal – suggesting that demand is elastic (page 20 – 21).
Summary of how demand for certain types of law advice had increased as the recession took hold (page 21 onwards).
In an English report (P. Fenn, A. Gray, and N. Rickman, The Impact of Sources of Finance on Personal Injury Litigation: An Empirical Analysis, Research Report, Department for Constitutional Affairs (U.K.), 2002.) it turned out that legal aid finance increased delay by around 11% relative to legal expenses insurance, controlling for all other factors.
An explanation is that claims that are legally aided are relatively immune to cost pressures. The Swedish experience shows that a
shift from legal aid to legal expenses insurance results in less court
cases. Page 9
Summary of number of RTA claims (page 9).
Incidents of legal assistance in 2008 – 2.5m, in 2009, 2.9m (page 52).
Survey shows how demands for different type of Citizens Advice has varied between two quarters (page 2). Further trends (page 4 onwards).
Indication of cost as last resort -
Less formal free routes exploited in the first instance for small businesses – slide 23
Formal legal service providers used for routine and reactive advice seen as quick and efficient but expensive and associated with very negative issues. Slide 24
Limited understanding of different types of lawyer – slide 26
Usual route is to use less formal legal service first including friend family peers colleagues, accountants, internet, trade associations legal help lines government departments CABs- slides 27-33
Perceived high cost is seen as main barrier to accessing legal services – slide 36
This report suggests demand for services in this sector is broadly consistent (page 71).
Number of legal aid cases dealt with, between 1996 – 2001 (page 6).
Report documents demand for family law services, but does not indicate which legal service providers were used.
covers supplier-induced demand (page 11) – i.e. taking on cases with little merit.
Report indicates that while the volume of private family law cases in which counsel has been involved has remained stable since 2001, the number of publically funded family law cases in which counsel has been involved has increased (page 5). Graph on page 6.
Decline in demand for civil claims in the county court between 1997 – 2003 – page 3.
Looking at law firms in the US, reports on upward trend in the cost of securing legal services – page 5
“Over the last decade, corporate firms have increased their hourly rates by 6-8 percent annually, nearly double the rate of inflation. Such rate increases have been a driving force behind the increased profitability of many large and mid-sized law firms. In one sample, rate increases accounted for two thirds of revenue gains achieved between 2003 and 2004. Page 6
Overall payments to counsel in some cases seems to have increased over time (page 7). Table shown on page 8. Payment costs where counsel was not used on page 9. Conclusions on page 16.
Report lawyers who advertise tend to charge less than those that do not (page 4). Some nuances to this point on same page.
Report discusses discount costs of court fees – eligibility rates (page 29).
Report refers to Jackson report, which in turn said that referral fees for PI work added to litigation costs without adding value (page 8).
Report suggests that recession has caused a drop in fee income and charge out rates among big firms (page 7).
Breakdown of Court Fees increases from 1998-2004
Suggested that when licensed conveyancers first entered the market, they charged 20-30% less. But then, over time, price increased among solicitors (page 798). And then price differential between solicitors and conveyancers decreased too (page 799).
Commenting on the impact of increased referral fees, report states:
There was no evidence that increases in referral fees had led to an increase in the price of legal services. Price does not play a strong role in personal injury cases because of the prevalence of
Time series of hourly charge out rates broken down by solicitor segments.
Discusses whether legal costs had increased post-Woolf in PI cases (page XXXvii) – yes, . In insurance cases, claimant rates went up, defendant rates fell (page 62).
Various reports suggest that advertising leads to lower fees (page 5)
Highlights increasing resistance from clients to pay by the hour, wanting fixed fees. – page 10
Yes – move towards tending and fixed price for police advice (page 37 – 38).
Impacts of regulation changes on costs -
In Australia, the removal of lawyers
Analysis of the causes of the trend in criminal legal work
Typical rates for legal expense insurance summarised (page 15). How much standalone LEI policies would cost (page 52)
The overall public expenditure costs of handling complaints and appeals can be assessed very roughly as
the cost per new case and our research summarised in Figures 11 and 15 suggests the following data:
- complaints cost an average of
Cost of advice – pages 122- 127
Breakdown of types of court fees across Europe – pages 52-57, stating that
high level of court fees for Austria, Germany, Poland, Turkey and UK-England and Wales can be explained because the courts are responsible for the land registers. Acquiring information from these registers or for recording modifications fees must be paid. Page 55
Brief history of Guideline Hourly rates used as a starting point for assessment of solicitors costs and how they have been set
Charges (and overheads) of partners and other fee earners at very large firms compared (page 12).
Breakdown of Average High Street price, versus fixed price via My Lawyer. High street solicitor prices based on an average hourly rate of
Breakdown of the costs of criminal legal work
In PI claims, for every
In the Netherlands, the average money paid to legal aid lawyers is around 1000 Euros per case – page 6. Typical cost of civil law case in the Netherland is also 1000 Euros (page 7).
Report summarises expenditure costs of external counsel (page 12), and compares them with the cost of CPS in-house advocates. Press release on page 19 gives additional costs breakdown per area.
Cost of legal advice over the phone –
Legal aid magistrates work summarised (pages 29 – 31)
2.1 – what should and should not be included in quoted prices
Cost of providing free advice after death of person was variously put at between
List of guideline hourly rates 2007-2010 split by Bands of Location, type of court, grades of fee earner, and length of hearing for counsel.
Analysis of the cost of wills
Costs of legal aid matters in Australia by type of matter (page 30). More costings page 33-34.
Australian study of criminal legal aid – real term fees paid to barristers declined substantially between 1993 – 2007 (page 2). More data on page 9 onwards. Costs compared with other parts of the criminal justice system – i.e. magistrates (page 24).
Defendants costs orders guideline costs broken down by grade, function, and court:
Magistrates Court – Litigators advocacy, national and London hourly rates and Counsels fees – daily rates – Pages 2- 3
Crown Court – page 5
Very High Cost Cases – Pages 6-13
High court – Pages 13-14
Court of Appeal – Pages 16 – 18
Average cost of LEI claim in Germany 540Euros (page 8).
Median effective hourly gross rates of pay for barristers are about
Hourly costs to CPS of in-house advocates vs. cost of counsel:
the hourly cost of a crown advocate is
In 2007/2008, the cost of running the civil and family courts in England and Wales was
IN A US Study on class action settlements, between 13 and 20% of settlements went to the lawyers. That compared to lawyers fees of around 33% of awards when claims were individually litigated. Breakdowns of costs on page 23-24 and 29 – 30.
In Germany, standalone before the event legal expense insurance typically cost
Report on Personal Injury Market -
Rates charged by personal injury (PI) claimants
Report suggests that legal exec typically charge
Reports on a variety of surveys conducted in the 1990′s looking at privately paid civil work.
Tables showing hourly charge out rate for solicitors by grade and by size of firm (page 2) and barristers (page 3).
For Civil work the research found that:
a barrister of less than 10 years call, both in London and outside, is significantly less expensive than either an assistant solicitor or a partner. A more experienced barrister of over 10 years call does cost less than a partner, but the difference is less pronounced. This is to be expected as senior barrister and partner may both offer a high degree of experience and specialised knowledge. Page 5
Looks at the cost of delivering advice to debt outreach clients
The average cost per client seen was
Reports that court fees range form
Members of the Children’s Panel can get an uplift for legal aid work of up to 15% (page 30).
Review looking at costs of civil justice states:
Litigation is labour intensive and will always be costly – page 40
Discssion on cost and funding relationship to access to justice, and factors that drive costs in litigation- pages 40-51
Recognises key role of judges in litigation costs – judges must acquire a thorough understanding of the costs consequences of the case management directions which they give – page 45
Impacts of fee regimies on efficency – Page 47
Sets out proposal for an independant costs council, to set and review guidline hourly rates, review fixed costs and upper limites – pages 61- 64
NZ costs by comparison (page 14) and Canada (page 15),
Shows Median private price,